Regenerative Medicine Publications

TOBI Faculty Publications: January 2017

January 2017, Stem Cells and Development
Autologous and Allogeneic Equine Mesenchymal Stem Cells Exhibit Equivalent Immunomodulatory Properties In Vitro.
TOBI Faculty C. Wayne McIlwraith, MD, published this study evaluating different methods of modulating inflammatory processes related to acute or chronic musculoskeletal injuries in the horse. They conducted studies to assess the immunological properties of equine allogeneic BMDMSCs compared with those of autologous BMDMSCs. For assessment of inherent immunogenicity, the relative ability of allogeneic and autologous BMDMSCs to stimulate spontaneous proliferation of equine lymphocytes was compared.
Access the full study here.

January 2017, The Ocular Surface
Autologous method for ex vivo expansion of human limbal epithelial progenitor cells based on plasma rich in growth factors technology.
From the Biotechnology Institute in Spain, TOBI Faculty alumni Eduardo Anitua, MD, Phd, carried out this study to Develop an autologous culture method for ex vivo expansion of human limbal epithelial progenitor cells (LEPCs) using Plasma Rich in Growth Factors (PRGF) as a growth supplement and as a scaffold for the culture of LEPCs.
See the full study here.

January 2017, Tissue Engineering: Part A
Braided and Stacked Electrospun Nanofibrous Scaffolds for Tendon and Ligament Tissue Engineering.
Tendon and ligament injuries are a persistent orthopaedic challenge given their poor innate healing capacity. Non-woven electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds composed of polyesters have been used to mimic the mechanics and topographical cues of native tendons and ligaments. However, non-woven nanofibers have several limitations that prevent broader clinical application, including poor cell infiltration as well as tensile and suture-retention strengths that are inferior to native tissues. In this study, multilayered scaffolds of aligned electrospun nanofibers of two designs – stacked or braided – were fabricated. Mechanical properties, including structural and mechanical properties and suture-retention strength, were determined using acellular scaffolds.TOBI 2017 Faculty and Speaker Rocky Tuan, PhD, published this in Tissue Engineering.
Access the full study here.

January 2017, Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Biologic Approaches for the Treatment of Partial Tears of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament.
This valuable review by TOBI 2017 Faculty Ignacio Dallo, MD, looks at biologic treatment options for partial tears of the ACL. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) has been established as the gold standard for treatment of complete ruptures of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in active, symptomatic individuals. In contrast, treatment of partial tears of the ACL remains controversial. Biologically augmented ACL-repair techniques are expanding in an attempt to regenerate and improve healing and outcomes of both the native ACL and the reconstructed graft tissue.
See the full study here.

January/February 2017, Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Clinical Efficacy of an Ultrasound-Guided Greater Occipital Nerve Block at the Level of C2.
The purpose of this prospective open-label study, authored in part by TOBI alumni faculty Matthew J. Pingree, MD, was to investigate the analgesic effects of an ultrasound-guided greater occipital nerve (GON) block at the level of C2, as the nerve courses superficially to the obliquus capitis inferior muscle.
Access the full study here.

January 2017, Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine
Concussion in Ice Hockey: Current Gaps and Future Directions in an Objective Diagnosis.
This review, from TOBI faculty alumni Jonathan T. Finoff, DO, provides an update on sport-related concussion (SRC) in ice hockey and makes a case for changes in clinical concussion evaluation. Standard practice should require that concussions be objectively diagnosed and provide quantitative measures of the concussion injury that will serve as a platform for future evidence-based treatment.
Access the review here.

January 2017, Pain Medicine
Response to: Rho et al. “Deconstructing Chronic Low Back Pain in the Older Adult-Step by Step Evidence and Expert- Based Recommendations for Evaluation and Treatment. Part VIII: Lateral Hip and Thigh Pain”.
Read longtime TOBI speaker and faculty Dr. Gerard Malanga’s review of an article which presented an evidence-based algorithm to assist primary care providers with the diagnosis and management of lateral hip and thigh pain in older adults.
See the review here.

January 2017, Foot & Ankle International
Effect of Suture Caliber and Number of Core Strands on Repair of Acute Achilles Ruptures.
Controversy exists regarding the ideal Achilles rupture treatment; however, operative treatment is considered for athletes and active patients. The ideal repair construct is evolving, and the effect of suture caliber or number of core strands has not been studied.
In this study, completed with TOBI Faculty Thomas O. Clanton, MD, simulated mid-substance Achilles ruptures were performed in 24 cadavers. Specimens were randomized to three 6-core-strand style repair constructs: (1) 4 No. 2 sutures and two 2-mm tapes (2T); (2) 2 No. 2 sutures and four 2-mm tapes (4T); (3) 12 (double-6-strand) strand repair (12 No. 2-0 sutures [12S]). Repairs were subjected to a cyclic loading protocol representative of postoperative rehabilitation. These data were compared to a previously published standard open repair technique (6-core strands with No. 2 sutures) on 9 specimens tested under the same conditions.
Access the study here.

January 2017, Journal of Experimental Orthopedics
Effects of combined rAAV-mediated TGF-β and sox9 gene transfer and overexpression on the metabolic and chondrogenic activities in human bone marrow aspirates.
Henning Madry, MD, TOBI 2016 Speaker, contributed to this study, the findings of which report the possibility of directly modifying bone marrow aspirates by combined therapeutic gene transfer as a potent and convenient future approach to improve the repair of articular cartilage lesions.
Access the study here.

January 2017, Journal of Translational Medicine
Effects of the intradiscal implantation of stromal vascular fraction plus platelet rich plasma in patients with degenerative disc disease
Stromal vascular fraction (SVF) can easily be obtained from a mini-lipoaspirate procedure of fat tissue and platelet rich plasma (PRP) can be obtained from peripheral blood. The SVF contains a mixture of cells including ADSCs and growth factors and has been depleted of the adipocyte (fat cell) population. In this study, TOBI faculty alumni Kristin Comella, PhD, evaluated the safety and efficacy of administering SVF and PRP intra-discally into patients with degenerative disc disease.
Access the study here.

January 2017, Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Emerging Translation of Regenerative Therapies.
This translational report, published by TOBI 2017 Speaker Julie Allickson, PhD, covers current field of emerging cell therapy and tissue engineering therapies, and includes the challenges and opportunities to accelerate clinical translation in regenerative medicine. Translation of regenerative medicine refers to the transfer from bench (proof-of-concept) to bedside (clinical trials), and finally commercialization. Regenerative medicine therapies have the capacity to replace, repair, and regenerate cells, tissues, and organs to restore normal function in the body. These emerging therapies are shifting the paradigm from treatment-based to cure-based therapies.
Access the report here.

January 2017, Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Functional results of bilateral reverse total shoulder arthroplasty.
The purpose of this study was to analyze a population of patients with bilateral reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) to evaluate their ability to perform activities of daily living and personal hygiene tasks. The authors, which included TOBI Faculty alumni Brian J. Cole, MD, concluded that Bilateral RTSA provides predictable pain relief and improved function. Hygiene practices are unaltered for most patients, and the other patients rapidly develop simple compensatory strategies and retain independence in activities of daily living.
See the full study here.

January 2017, Journal of Orthopedic Surgery and Research
Functional analysis of distraction arthroplasty in the treatment of ankle osteoarthritis.
Ankle joint distraction arthroplasty (AJDA) is an alternative surgical procedure for the management of moderate to severe ankle osteoarthritis. However, the benefit of this procedure and failure relative factors are still in debate. The purpose of the current study, published in part by TOBI 2017 Faculty Wenchun Qu, MD, MS, PhD, was to evaluate the functional outcomes of AJDA in treatment of moderate to severe ankle OA and to evaluate the relative factors correlated with treatment failure.
See the full study here.

January 2017, Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Genetic Modification of Human Peripheral Blood Aspirates Using Recombinant Adeno-Associated Viral Vectors for Articular Cartilage Repair with a Focus on Chondrogenic Transforming Growth Factor-β Gene Delivery.
Transplantation of genetically modified peripheral blood aspirates that carry chondrogenically competent progenitor cells may offer new, convenient tools to treat articular cartilage lesions compared with the more complex and invasive application of bone marrow concentrates or of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Here, TOBI Faculty Henning Madry, MD, shows that recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors are powerful gene vehicles capable of successfully targeting primary human peripheral blood aspirates in a stable and safe manner, allowing for an efficient and long-term transgene expression in such samples (up to 63 days with use of a lacZ reporter gene and for at least 21 days with application of the pleiotropic, chondrogenic factor transforming growth factor-β [TGF-β]). rAAV-mediated overexpression of TGF-β enhanced both the proliferative and metabolic properties of the peripheral blood aspirates, also increasing the chondrogenic differentiation processes in these samples.
Access the study here.

January 2017, Connective Tissue Research
Hydrogels for precision meniscus tissue engineering: a comprehensive review.
This review, also published in part by TOBI 2016 Speaker Henning Madry, MD, describes the most recent advances on the use of hydrogels as platforms for precision meniscus tissue engineering. The meniscus plays a pivotal role to preserve the knee joint homeostasis. Lesions to the meniscus are frequent, have a reduced ability to heal, and may induce tibiofemoral osteoarthritis. Current reconstructive therapeutic options mainly focus on the treatment of lesions in the peripheral vascularized region. In contrast, few approaches are capable of stimulating repair of damaged meniscal tissue in the central, avascular portion. Tissue engineering approaches are of high interest to repair or replace damaged meniscus tissue in this area. Hydrogel-based biomaterials are of special interest for meniscus repair as its inner part contains relatively high proportions of proteoglycans which are responsible for the viscoelastic compressive properties and hydration grade.
Access the full study here.

January 2017, Neuromodulation
The Neurostimulation Appropriateness Consensus Committee (NACC) Recommendations for Infection Prevention and Management.
TOBI Faculty alumni Didier Demesmin, MD, investigates neurostimulation therapy for pain management. The use of neurostimulation for pain has been an established therapy for many decades and is a major tool in the arsenal to treat neuropathic pain syndromes. Level I evidence has recently been presented to substantiate the therapy, but this is balanced against the risk of complications of an interventional technique. The Neurostimulation Appropriateness Consensus Committee (NACC) concluded that adhering to established standards can improve patient care and reduce the morbidity and mortality of infectious complications in patients receiving neurostimulation.
Access the full study here.

January 2017, Arthoscopy
Optimization of Anteromedial Portal Femoral Tunnel Drilling With Flexible and Straight Reamers in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Cadaveric 3-Dimensional Computed Tomography Analysis.
TOBI Faculty Brian J. Cole, MD, and coauthors published this study in Arthroscopy: The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery. The purpose of the study was to use 3-dimensional custom CAD technology to evaluate how knee flexion angle affects femoral tunnel length and distance to the posterior wall when using curved and straight guides for drilling through the anteromedial portal (AMP).
See the full study here.

January 2017, Sports Health
The Relationship Between Pitching Mechanics and Injury.
The overhand pitch is one of the fastest known human motions and places enormous forces and torques on the upper extremity. Shoulder and elbow pain and injury are common in high-level pitchers. A large body of research has been conducted to understand the pitching motion. This is a comprehensive review, in part authored by TOBI Faculty Brian J. Cole, MD, of the literature to gain a full understanding of all currently available biomechanical and clinical evidence surrounding pitching motion analysis. These motion analysis studies use video motion analysis, electromyography, electromagnetic sensors, and markered motion analysis. This review includes studies performed between 1983 and 2016.
Access the full review here.

January 2017, Tissue Engineering Part II: Reviews
The Rotator Cuff Organ: Integrating Developmental Biology, Tissue Engineering, and Surgical Considerations to Treat Chronic Massive Rotator Cuff Tears.
Another study from TOBI 2017 Speaker Rocky Tuan, PhD, in which he reviews different tissue engineering strategies to improve rotator cuff healing.
Access the full review here.

December 29, 2016, Journal of Biomechanics
Sub-critical impact inhibits the lubricating mechanisms of articular cartilage.
From longtime TOBI Faculty alumni Lisa Fortier, DVM, PhD, DACVS, et al: “Although post-traumatic osteoarthritis accounts for a significant proportion of all osteoarthritis, the understanding of both biological and mechanical phenomena that lead to cartilage degeneration in the years to decades after trauma is still lacking. In this study, we evaluate how cartilage lubrication is altered after a sub-critical impact (i.e., an impact to the cartilage surface that produces surface cracking but not full thickness fissuring).”
Access the study here.

January 2017, American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Successful Treatment of Gluteal Pain from Obturator Internus Tendinitis and Bursitis with Ultrasound-Guided Injection.
This case report describes what the authors, among whom is TOBI Faculty alumni Todd Stitik, MD, believe is the first case of a patient with obturator internus tendinitis and bursitis successfully treated with a corticosteroid injection using a trans-tendinous lateral to medial approach. The patient presented with right gluteal pain not relieved by physical therapy or right hip and ischial bursa corticosteroid injections. Pelvic and lumbar spine MRIs and EMG/NCS findings were unremarkable. Physical examination demonstrated tenderness to palpation at the right middle lower gluteal region. Ultrasound imaging with sonopalpation identified the maximal local tender point as the right obturator internus muscle and/or its underlying bursa. A 22-gauge 3.5-inch needle was inserted in-plane to the transducer and longitudinal to the obturator internus from a lateral to medial direction, an approach previously described in cadavers. The obturator internus tendon sheath and bursa were injected with 2.5 ml of 0.5% lidocaine combined with 10 mg of triamcinolone. The patient reported immediate complete relief of pain with continued relief at 2 and 6 months post-injection. This case report demonstrates an injection of the obturator internus tendon sheath and bursa using a trans-tendinous approach, which may be successful for treatment of patients presenting with persistent gluteal pain from obturator internus tendinitis and bursitis.
Access the case report here.

January 2017, Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Traumatized muscle-derived multipotent progenitor cells recruit endothelial cells through vascular endothelial growth factor-A action.
Traumatized muscle, such as that debrided from blast injury sites, is considered a promising and convenient tissue source for multipotent progenitor cells (MPCs), a population of adult mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like cells. The present study, by TOBI 2017 Speaker Rocky Tuan, PhD, and his coauthors, aimed to assess the regenerative therapeutic potential of human traumatized muscle-derived MPCs, e.g., for injury repair in the blast-traumatized extremity, by comparing their pro-angiogenic potential in vitro and capillary recruitment activity in vivo to those of MSCs isolated from human bone marrow, a widely-used tissue source. MPCs were tested for their direct and indirect effects on human microvascular endothelial cells (ECs) in vitro.
Access the full study here.

January 2017, Arthroscopy
Viable Stem Cells Are in the Injury Effusion Fluid and Arthroscopic Byproducts From Knee Cruciate Ligament Surgery: An In Vivo Analysis.
This study examined the number of viable stem cells contained in the postinjury effusion fluid and the waste byproducts of arthroscopic cruciate ligament surgery. TOBI Faculty alumni Adam Anz, MD, was among the contributors. They concluded that viable stem cells are mobilized to the postinjury effusion at the time of cruciate ligament injury and can be found in the byproduct waste of cruciate ligament surgery.
Access the study here.

End of the Year Wrap-Up: Studies in Regenerative Medicine by TOBI Faculty, October – December 2016


December 2016, Journal of Experimental Orthopedics
The effect of foot landing position on biomechanical risk factors associated with anterior cruciate ligament injury.
Stanford-based TOBI Speaker and Faculty Jason L. Dragoo published this study, which examines the effect of foot landing postion on risk factors associated with anterior cruciate ligament injury. They concluded that toe-in landing position exacerbates biomechanical risk factors associated with ACL injury, while toe-out landing position decreases these factors.
See the full study here.

December 2016, American Journal of Sports Medicine
The Use of Platelet-Rich and Platelet-Poor Plasma to Enhance Differentiation of Skeletal Myoblasts.
Dr. Jason Dragoo, long-time TOBI Faculty, continues his PRP research with this study, of which the purpose was to compare the effects of the following non-neutrophil-containing (leukocyte-poor) plasma fractions on human skeletal muscle myoblast (HSMM) differentiation: (1) PRP, (2) modified PRP (Mod-PRP), in which transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and myostatin (MSTN) were depleted, and (3) platelet-poor plasma (PPP). The hypothesis was that leukocyte-poor PRP would lead to myoblast proliferation (not differentiation), whereas certain modifications of PRP preparations would increase myoblast differentiation, which is necessary for skeletal muscle regeneration.
See the full study here.

December 2016, Foot and Ankle Clinics
Orthobiologics in the Foot and Ankle.
From our TOBI 2016 Speaker H. Thomas Temple: Many allogeneic biologic materials, by themselves or in combination with cells or cell products, may be transformative in healing or regeneration of musculoskeletal bone and soft tissues. By reconfiguring the size, shape, and methods of tissue preparation to improve deliverability and storage, unique iterations of traditional tissue scaffolds have emerged. These new iterations, combined with new cell technologies, have shaped an exciting platform of regenerative products that are effective and provide a bridge to newer and better methods of providing care for orthopedic foot and ankle patients.
See the full study here.

December 2016, American Journal of Sports Medicine
Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Derived Stem Cells Transduced With BMP2 Accelerate Graft-Bone Integration After ACL Reconstruction.
TOBI Faculty Johnny Huard, MD, published this study in the American Journal of Sports Medicine to identify strategies that accelerate graft-bone integration, which would reduce the time to biologic fixation, improve the reliability of biologic fixation, allow for accelerated rehabilitation, and potentially reduce the incidence of early graft pullout and late midsubstance failure after ACL reconstruction.
See the full study here.

December 2016, Journal of Experimental Orthopedics
Bone marrow aspirate concentrate for the treatment of osteochondral lesions of the talus: a systematic review of outcomes.
The goal of this study, done by TOBI faculty Thomas O’Clanton, MD and published in the Journal of Experimental Orthopedics, was perform a systematic review on the outcomes of bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC) for the treatment of chondral defects and osteoarthritis (OA) of the talus.
See the full study here.

December 2016, Musculoskeletal Surgery
Hip arthroscopy complications regarding surgery and early postoperative care: retrospective study and review of literature.
Internationally-known TOBI Speaker and Faculty Ramon Cugat published this study in Musculoskeletal Surgery, which describes the rate of complications in a series of hip arthroscopies performed at his center, as well as performing a systematic review of the current literature in order to compare outcomes.
See the full study here.


November 2016, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
Platelet Rich Plasma
New TOBI 2017 Speaker and MSK Ultrasound Lab Director Joanne Borg-Stein, MD contributed to this article, which reviews the latest basic science on PRP, clinical evidence for its use in musculoskeletal medicine, limitations in current knowledge, and critical areas for future research.
See the full study here.

November 2016, Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine
Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome: Percutaneous Tendon Fenestration Versus Platelet-Rich Plasma Injection for Treatment of Gluteal Tendinosis.
This fascinating study by longtime TOBI faculty Jon A. Jacobson, MD compares ultrasound-guided percutaneous tendon fenestration to platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection for treatment of greater trochanteric pain syndrome. Results showed that both ultrasound-guided tendon fenestration and PRP injection are effective for treatment of gluteal tendinosis.
See the full study here.

 November 2016, International Orthopedics
Local transplantation of bone marrow concentrated granulocytes precursors can cure without antibiotics infected nonunion of polytraumatic patients in absence of bone defect.
International TOBI Speaker Dr. Philippe Hernigou explore new and alternative therapies to address infected, long bone non-unions in this study in International Orthopedics.
See the full study here.

November 2016, Expert Opinion on Biological Therapies
Platelet-rich plasma, a source of autologous growth factors and biomimetic scaffold for peripheral nerve regeneration.
This review addresses current molecular and cellular data in intrinsic nerve repair processes and describes different strategies to harness and enhance processes by using biochemical and biomechanical cues. It focuses on autologous fibrin, plasma and platelet-derived growth factors as filler or scaffolds that can synergize with the gold standard therapy and other nerve guidance conduits. Expert opinion: PRP is applied as a filler of nerve conduits or vein-muscle grafts across nerve gaps post trauma by infiltrating the nerve stumps perineurally and intraneurally in neuropathies, or as scaffolds to bridge or wrap nerve stumps, with significant neurological recovery and pain reduction.
See the full study here.

November 2016, Cells, Tissues, Organs
Muscle Injuries and Repair: What’s New on the Horizon
TOBI Faculty and alumni Johnny Huard, MD, of University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, published a comprehensive overview to to highlight current knowledge, outline recent advances, and to discuss the evolving paradigms in skeletal muscle injury and repair.
See the full study here.

November 2016, The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery
What’s New in Orthopaedic Rehabilitation
TOBI Faculty William Murrell, MD, along with his co-authors, compiled an update of evidence of the research in Orthopaedic Rehabilitation from 2015 -2016. They screened evidence from studies published in American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, The American Journal of Sports Medicine, Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, The Clinical Journal of Pain, JAMA, The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery, The Journal of Pain, Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, The New England Journal of Medicine, Physical Therapy, and PM&R.
See the full compilation here.

November 2016, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
Orthobiologics and Knee Osteoarthritis: A Recent Literature Review, Treatment Algorithm, and Pathophysiology Discussion.
TOBI Faculty Kristin Oliver, MD, contributed to this article, which reviews the current options in orthobiologics for the clinical treatment of knee osteoarthritis (OA), including discussions of graft choice and patient selection in the current state of understanding of the treatment of knee OA in a tissue engineering model with orthobiologics.
Access the full study here.

November 2016, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
Regenerative Approaches to Tendon and Ligament Conditions.
TOBI Faculty Brian J. Shiple reviews biocellular and orthobiologic approaches including PRP and stem cell therapies, as well as some of the regenerative medicine science and difficulties facing physicians exploring these methods.
See the full study here.

November 2016, American Journal of Sports Medicine
Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Derived Stem Cells Transduced With BMP2 Accelerate Graft-Bone Integration After ACL Reconstruction.
The purpose of this study, by TOBI Faculty Johnny Huard, MD, at the University of Pittsburgh, was to identify strategies that accelerate graft-bone integration. Huard studied whether the application of ACL-derived stem cells with enhanced expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) onto soft tissue grafts in the form of cell sheets will both accelerate and improve the quality of graft-bone integration after ACL reconstruction in a rat model.
See the full study here. 


October 2016, Orthopedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Mechanoreceptor Reinnervation of Autografts Versus Allografts After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.
This study, published in the Orthopedic Journal of Sports Medicine, focused onthe presence or absence of mechanoreceptors between allograft versus autograft after ACL reconstruction in humans. Longtime TOBI Faculty Jason Dragoo, MD of Stanford published in October 2016.
See the full study here.

October 2016, Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy.
The efficacy of post-operative devices following knee arthroscopic surgery: a systematic review
TOBI Speaker & Faculty Jason Dragoo, MD continues his ACL research with this study, published in Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy. There is a wide array of device modalities available for post-operative treatment following arthroscopic knee surgery; however, it remains unclear which types and duration of modality are the most effective. This systematic review aimed to investigate the efficacy of device modalities used following arthroscopic knee surgery.
See the full study here.

October 2016, Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine
Ultrasound Findings of Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness
Longtime TOBI Faculty members Jon A. Jacobson and Kenneth Mautner published this study together, the purpose of which was to retrospectively characterize the ultrasound findings of delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS).
See the full study here.

October 2016, American Journal of Sports Medicine
Biomechanical Effects of an Injury Prevention Program in Preadolescent Female Soccer Athletes.
Furthering even more his cutting-edge ACL research, Jason Dragoo, MD led a study on the effects of an injury-prevention warm-up program on changes to biomechanical risk factors for an ACL injury in preadolescent female soccer players. This study provides motivation for enhancing injury prevention programs to produce improvement in other ACL risk factors.
See the full study here.

October 2016, Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Macroscopic cartilage repair scoring of defect fill, integration and total points correlate with corresponding items in histological scoring systems – a study in adult sheep.
TOBI 2016 Speaker Henning Madry, MD, of Saarland University Medical Center in Germany conducted a study to correlate osteochondral repair assessed by validated macroscopic scoring systems with established semiquantitative histological analyses in an ovine model, and to test the hypothesis that important macroscopic individual categories correlate with their corresponding histological counterparts. They concluded that macroscopy allows to precisely predict key histological aspects of articular cartilage repair, underlining the specific value of macroscopic scoring for examining cartilage repair.
See the full study here.

October 2016, Stem Cells International
Modulation of Synovial Fluid-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Intra-Articular and Intraosseous Platelet Rich Plasma Administration.
The aim of this study, by TOBI faculty alumni Mikel SanchezNicolas Fiz, and Sabino Padilla, was to evaluate the effect of intra-articular (IA) or a combination of intra-articular and intraosseous (IO) infiltration of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) on the cellular content of synovial fluid (SF) of osteoarthritic patients.
See the full study here.

TOBI Faculty & Alumni Publications: July – September 2016

July 2016, Orthopedic Journal of Sports Medicine
The Use of Platelet-Rich and Platelet-Poor Plasma to Enhance Differentiation of Skeletal Myoblasts
Implications for the Use of Autologous Blood Products for Muscle Regeneration
TOBI Faculty Jason Dragoo of Stanford University Medical Center presented this research for the first time at TOBI 2016 before publishing it in the Orthopedic Journal of Sports Medicine. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of non-neutrophil containing PRP (LP-PRP), modified LP-PRP (Mod LP-PRP) where TGF-β1 and myostatin (MSTN) were depleted, and platelet poor plasma (PPP) on human skeletal muscle myoblast (HSMM) differentiation. See the full study here.

Aug 2016, Regen Med
Intra-articular bone marrow concentrate injection protocol: short-term efficacy in osteoarthritis.
TOBI founder Steven Sampson and TOBI faculty Jay Smith, Danielle Aufiero and Hunter Vincent published this open-access study, designed to evaluate intra-articular injection of bone marrow concentrate (BMC), followed by platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection at 8 weeks follow-up in moderate/severe osteoarthritis.
See the full study here.

Aug 2016, Journal of Stem Cells & Regenerative Medicine
Randomized controlled trial comparing hyaluronic acid, platelet-rich plasma and the combination of both in the treatment of mild and moderate osteoarthritis of the knee.
TOBI faculty & alumni, Jose Fabio Lana (Sao Paulo, Brazil), Adam Weglein, Mary Ambach, Hunter Vincent, and TOBI founder Steven Sampson collaborated on this study in the Journal of Stem Cells & Regenerative Medicine. See the full study here.

Aug 2016, The American Journal of Sports Medicine
A Prospective, Single-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate for Knee Osteoarthritis
TOBI faculty Shane Shapiro presented this research for the first time at TOBI 2016, then published it after the conference. Dr. Shapiro conducted a study to determine whether BMAC would prove feasible, safe, and efficacious for the treatment of pain due to mild to moderate degenerative joint disease of the knee. See the full study here.

Sept. 2016, Frontiers in Veterinary Science
The Use of Adipose-Derived Progenitor Cells and Platelet-Rich Plasma Combination for the Treatment of Supraspinatus Tendinopathy in 55 Dogs: A Retrospective Study
TOBI alumni faculty Debra Canapp, Sherman Canapp, and Victor Ibrahim report clinical findings and outcomes for 55 dogs with supraspinatus tendinopathy (ST) treated with adipose-derived progenitor cells and platelet-rich plasma (ADPC-PRP) therapy. See the full study here.


PRP Textbook – Coming Soontextbook-prp

TOBI founder Steven Sampson and TOBI faculty Kenneth Mautner contributed a chapter to Platelet Rich Plasma in Musculoskeletal Practice (Springer 2016.) The textbook was edited by TOBI alumni Nicola Maffulli (London, England).

This book provides an introductory overview of advancements in platelet-rich plasma (PRP), focusing on current technologies and methods, new challenges and controversies, and avenues for further research. Pre-order the textbook here.

New Publications from Dr. Steven Sampson

Allan K. Mishra MD, Nebojsa V. Skrepnik MD, Scott G. Edwards MD, Grant L. Jones MD, Steve Sampson DO, Doug A. Vermillion MD, Matthew L. Ramsey MD, David Karli MD, Arthur C. Rettig MD
Platelet Rich Plasma Significantly Improves Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Chronic Tennis Elbow
AAOS March 2013

Steven Sampson, DO
Game-Changer: Ultrasound-guided needle procedures offer accurate, cost-effective, and often less painful treatment of musculoskeletal disorders
Imaging Economics, September 2011, Dollars & Sense.
[Full article]

Steven Sampson DO, Michael Meng DC, Adam Schulte OMS III, Drew Trainor MS/OMS III, Roberto Montenegro PhD, Danielle Aufiero MD
Management of Dupuytren Contracture With Ultrasound-Guided Lidocaine Injection and Needle Aponeurotomy Coupled With Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment
JAOA. February 2011, Vol 111, No 2.
[Full article]

Steven Sampson, Danielle Aufiero, Michael Meng, Anthony Bledin, Terry Gillette, Mona Zall
Platelet-rich plasma therapy as a first-line treatment for severe Achilles tendon tear: a case report
International Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation. February 2011, Vol 18, No 2.
[Full article]

Steven E. Sampson DO, Marty Reed MD, Holly Silvers MPT, Michael Meng DC, Bert Mandelbaum MD.
Injection of Platelet-Rich Plasma in Patients with Primary and Secondary Knee Osteoarthritis: A Pilot Study
The American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. Nov 20, 2010 online. Print Dec 2010.
[Full article]

Preparation of blood for PRP injection

Review Articles

Boswell SG, Cole BJ, Sundman EA, Karas V, Fortier LA
Platelet-Rich Plasma: A Milieu of Bioactive Factors 
Arthroscopy 2012 Jan 25.

Platelet-Rich Plasma: A Milieu of Bioactive Factors
Arthroscopy: The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery, 2012

Rosalyn T Nguyen MD, Joanne Borg-Stein MD, Kelly McInnis DO.
Applications of Platelet-Rich Plasma in Musculoskeletal and Sports Medicine: An Evidence-Based Approach
PM&R; 2011 Mar; 3(3): 226-250.
[Full article]

Kenneth S Lee, John J Wilson, David P Rabago, Geoffrey S Baer, Jon A Jacobson, Camilo G Borrero.
Musculoskeletal Applications of Platelet-Rich Plasma: Fad or Future?
AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2011 Mar;196(3):628-36.
[Full article]

Sampson S, Gerhardt M, Mandelbaum B.
Platelet rich plasma injection grafts for musculoskeletal injuries: a review
Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med. 2008 Dec;1(3-4):165-74.
[Full article]

Tate K MD, Crane D.
Platelet Rich Plasma Grafts in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Journal of Prolotherapy. 2010 May; 2(2): 371-376.
[Full article]

Crane D, Everts P.
Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) Matrix Grafts. Practical Pain Management
2008:8 (1):11-26.
[Full article]

Hall MP, Band PA, Meislin RJ, Jazrawi LM, Cardone DA.
Platelet-rich plasma: current concepts and application in sports medicine
J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2009 Oct;17(10):602-8.
[Full article]

Sánchez M, Anitua E, Orive G, Mujika I, Andia I.
Platelet-rich therapies in the treatment of orthopaedic sport injuries
Sports Med. 2009;39(5):345-54.

Molloy T, Wang Y, Murrell G. 2003.
The Roles of Growth Factors in Tendon and Ligament Healing
Sports Med. 33(5):381-394

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Human Studies: Tendon/Ligament


Jo CH, Kim JE, Yoon KS, Shin S.
Platelet-Rich Plasma Stimulates Cell Proliferation and Enhances Matrix Gene Expression and Synthesis in Tenocytes From Human Rotator Cuff Tendons With Degenerative Tears.
Am J Sports Med. 2012 Feb 23.

Nickolas Garbis MD, Anthony A. Romeo MD, Geoffrey Van Thiel MD, MBA, Neil Ghodadra MD, Matthew T. Provencher MD, Brian J. Cole MD, MBA, Nikhil Verma MD
Clinical Indications and Techniques for the Use of Platelet-Rich Plasma in the Shoulder
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has recently been a topic of significant interest in the orthopedic community. In addition to the numerous basic science studies regarding the in vitro effects of PRP, there is more literature regarding the use of PRP in the clinical setting. PRP is …
Operative Techniques in Sports Medicine, Volume 19, Issue 3, September 2011, Pages 165-169.


Finnoff JT, Fowler SP, Lai JK, Santrach PJ, Willis EA, Sayeed YA, Smith J
Treatment of chronic tendinopathy with ultrasound-guided needle tenotomy and platelet-rich plasma injection
PM R 2011 Oct; 3(10):900-11.

Allan Mishra MD, Taco Gosens MD, PhD
Clinical Indications and Techniques for the Use of Platelet-Rich Plasma in the Elbow
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an emerging biological treatment option in sports medicine. Its value is best established for elbow-related disorders, such as lateral epicondylar tendinopathy. This common condition typically resolves with simple treatment modalities, …
Operative Techniques in Sports Medicine, 2011

Finnoff JT, Fowler SP, Lai JK, Santrach PJ, Willis EA, Sayeed YA, Smith J.
Treatment of Chronic Tendinopathy with Ultrasound-Guided Needle Tenotomy and Platelet-Rich Plasma Injection
PM R. 2011 Aug 25. Epub ahead of print

Taco Gosens MD/PhD, Joost C Peerbooms MD, Wilbert van Laar, Brenda L den Oudsten PhD.
Ongoing Positive Effect of Platelet-Rich Plasma Versus Corticosteroid Injection in Lateral Epicondylitis: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial With 2-Year Follow-Up
Am J Sports Med; 2011 Mar.

Keith S Hechtman MD, John W Uribe MD, Angie Botto-Vandemen PhD, Gary M Kiebzak PhD
Platelet-rich Plasma Injection Reduces Pain in Patients With Recalcitrant Epicondylitis
Orthopedics, February 2011.
[Full article]

Rabago D, Best TM, Zgierska AE, Zeisig E, Ryan M, Crane D
A systematic review of four injection therapies for lateral epicondylosis: prolotherapy, polidocanol, whole blood and platelet-rich plasma.
Br J Sports Med; 2009 Jul;43(7):471-81
[Full article]

Alsousou J, Thompson M, Hulley P, Noble A, Willett K
The biology of platelet-rich plasma and its application in trauma and orthopaedic surgery: a review of the literature.
J Bone Joint Surg Br; 2009 Aug;91(8):987-96
[Full article]

Hall MP, Band PA, Meislin RJ, Jazrawi LM, Cardone DA
Platelet-rich plasma: current concepts and application in sports medicine.
J Am Acad Orthop Surg; 2009 Oct;17(10):602-8
[Full article]

Peerbooms, J. C., Sluimer, J., Bruijn, D. J., Gosens, T.
Positive Effect of an Autologous Platelet Concentrate in Lateral Epicondylitis in a Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial: Platelet-Rich Plasma Versus Corticosteroid Injection With a 1-Year Follow-up
Am J Sports Med 38: 255-262

Mishra A, Pavelko T.
Treatment of chronic elbow tendinosis with buffered platelet-rich plasma
Am J Sports Med. 2006 Nov;34(11):1774-8.

Edwards SG, Calandruccio JH.
Autologous blood injections for refractory lateral epicondylitis
Am J Hand Surg. 2003;28(2):272–8.


Kevin J. Campbell, Robert E. Boykin, Coen A. Wijdicks, J. Erik Giphart, Robert F. LaPrade, Marc J. Philippon
Treatment of a hip capsular injury in a professional soccer player with platelet-rich plasma and bone marrow aspirate concentrate therapy
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Steadman Philippon
Research Institute; Published online 07 October 2012
[Full article]


New: Sandeep Patel, MS, Mandeep S. Dhillon, MS, FAMS, Sameer Aggarwal,
Neelam Marwaha, MD, FAMS, and Ashish Jain, MD
Treatment With Platelet-Rich Plasma Is More Effective Than Placebo
for Knee Osteoarthritis: A Prospective, Double-Blind, Randomized Trial
AJSM PreView, published on January 8, 2013 as doi:10.1177/0363546512471299
[Full article]
Tımea Spakova, PhD, Jan Rosocha, DVM, PhD, Marek Lacko, MD, Denisa Harvanova, PhD, Ahmed Gharaibeh, M
Treatment of Knee Joint Osteoarthritis with Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma in Comparison with Hyaluronic Acid
American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 0894-9115/12/9104-0000/0
[Full article]

Giuseppe Filardo, Elizaveta Kon, Stefano Della Villa, Ferruccio Vincentelli, Pier Maria Fornasari and Maurilio Marcacci
Use of platelet-rich plasma for the treatment of refractory jumper’s knee
International Orthopaedics; 31 July 2009; Vol 24, No 6; 909-915

Elizaveta Kon, Giuseppe Filardo, Marco Delcogliano, Mirco Lo Presti, Alessandro Russo, Alice Bondi, Alessandro Di Martino, Annarita Cenacchi, Pier Maria Fornasari, Maurilio Marcacci
Platelet-rich plasma: New clinical application: A pilot study for treatment of jumper’s knee
International Journal of the Care of the Injured; 2009 June; 40(6): 509-603

Kelly L. Scollon-Grieve, MD, Gerard A. Malanga, MD
Platelet-Rich Plasma Injection for Partial Patellar Tendon Tear in a High School Athlete: A Case Presentation
American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Vol. 3, 391-395, April 2011.
[Full article]


Nicolo Martinelli, Andrea Marinozzi, Stefano Carnì, Ugo Trovato,  Alberto Bianchi & Vincenzo Denaro
Platelet-rich plasma injections for chronic plantar fasciitis
Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012
International Orthopaedics (SICOT); Received: 14 October 2012 / Accepted: 25 November 2012
[Full article]

Monto, R.
Platelet-Rich Rich Plasma is More Effective than Cortisone for Chronic Severe Plantar Fasciitis
2012  Annual American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons meeting Podium Presentations.

Xiaofeng Jia MD, PhD, Paul G. Peters MD, Lew Schon MD
The Use of Platelet-Rich Plasma in the Management of Foot and Ankle Conditions
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains growth factors derived from venous blood. Bone marrow concentrate (BMC) is an analogous platelet-rich product that is generated from bone marrow aspirate and might have the added advantage of containing mesenchymal stem cells. …
Operative Techniques in Sports Medicine, Volume 19, Issue 3, September 2011, Pages 177-184.

Steven Sampson, Danielle Aufiero, Michael Meng, Anthony Bledin, Terry Gillette, Mona Zall
Platelet-rich plasma therapy as a first-line treatment for severe Achilles tendon tear: a case report
International Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation. February 2011, Vol 18, No 2.
[Full article]

Wiegerinck JI, Reilingh ML, de Jonge MC, van Dijk CN, Kerkhoffs GM
Injection Techniques of Platelet-Rich Plasma Into and Around the Achilles Tendon: A Cadaveric Study
Am J Sports Med, April 19 2011.

Gaweda K.
Treatment of Achilles Tendinopathy with Platelet RichPlasma
International Journal of Sports Med, June 2010.

P Robert J. de Vos et al.
Platelet-Rich Plasma Injection for Chronic Achilles Tendinopathy: A Randomized Controlled Study
JAMA 2010, 3003(2): 144-149.
[Full article]

Monto, R.
Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) Effectively Treats Chronic Achilles Tendinosis
2010 Annual American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons meeting Podium Presentations.
[Full article]

O’ Malley M.
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in managing Achilles tendinosis
2010 Annual American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) Meeting.
[Full article]

Filardo, G, Lo Presti M, Kon E, Marcacci M. 2010.
Nonoperative Biological Treatment Approach for partial Achilles Tendon Lesion
Orthopedics 1;33(2):120-3.
[Full article]

Barrett S, Erredge S.
Growth factors for chronic plantar fasciitis
Podiatry Today 2004;17:37.
[Full article]

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Human Studies: Muscle

Hector A. Mejia MD, James P. Bradley MD
The Effects of Platelet-Rich Plasma on Muscle: Basic Science and Clinical Application
Muscle injuries are the most common type of injuries in sports. The natural course in this repair process is often slow, incomplete, and unpredictable. For competitive or professional athletes, this delay or unpredictability in complete healing may be costly or career ending. …
Operative Techniques in Sports Medicine, Volume 19, Issue 3, September 2011, Pages 149-153.

Hammond JW, Hinton RY, Curl LA, Muriel JM, Lovering RM
Use of autologous platelet-rich plasma to treat muscle strain injuries.
Am J Sports Med; 2009 Jun;37(6):1135-42
[Full article]

Nikolidakis D, Jansen JA
The biology of platelet-rich plasma and its application in oral surgery: literature review.
Tissue Eng Part B Rev; 2008 Sep;14(3):249-58
[Full article]

Borrione, Paolo MD; Gianfrancesco, Alessia Di PharmD; Pereira, Maria Teresa MD; Pigozzi, Fabio MD
Platelet-Rich Plasma in Muscle Healing
American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation: October 2010 – Volume 89 – Issue 10 – pp 854-861.

Mishra A, Woodall Jr. J, Vieira A. 2009.
Treatment of Tendon and Muscle Using Platelet-Rich Plasma
Clin Sports Med 28(1): 113-25.
[Full article]

Carpenter, T et al.
Treatment of muscle injuries by local administration of autologous conditioned serum: a pilot study on sportsmen with muscle strains
Int J Sports Med, 2004. 25:589-594.

Hammond, JW et al.
Use of autologous platelet-rich plasma to treat muscle strain injuries
American Journal of Sports Med, 2009. 37 (6): 1135-1142.
[Full article]

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Human Studies: Arthritis/Cartilage

New: Emily A. Sundman, DVM, Brian J. Cole, MD, MBA, Vasili Karas, MD, Craig Della Valle, MD, Mathew W. Tetreault, MD, Hussni O. Mohammed, DVM, PhD and Lisa A. Fortier, DVM, PhD
The Anti-inflammatory and Matrix Restorative Mechanisms of Platelet-Rich Plasma in Osteoarthritis
The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 2013 Nov 5 [epub ahead of print]

Mikel Sánchez, Jorge Guadilla, Nicolás Fiz, Isabel Andia
Ultrasound-guided platelet-rich plasma injections for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the hip
Rheumatology (2011) doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/ker303 First published online: November 10, 2011.

Napolitano M, Matera S, Bossio M, Crescibene A, Costabile E, Almolla J, Almolla H, Togo F, Giannuzzi C, Guido G
Autologous platelet gel for tissue regeneration in degenerative disorders of the knee.
Blood Transfus. 2011 Oct 25:1-6. doi: 10.2450/2011.0026-11. [Epub ahead of print]

Kon E, Mandelbaum B, Buda R, Filardo G, Delcogliano M, Timoncini A, Fornasari PM, Giannini S, Marcacci M
Platelet-Rich Plasma Intra-Articular Injection Versus Hyaluronic Acid Viscosupplementation as Treatments for Cartilage Pathology: From Early Degeneration to Osteoarthritis
Arthroscopy. 2011 Aug 8. (Epub ahead of print)
Biomechanics Laboratory-III Clinic, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Bologna, Italy.

Park SI, Lee HR, Kim S, Ahn MW, Do SH
Time-sequential modulation in expression of growth factors from platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on the chondrocyte cultures
Mol Cell Biochem. 2011 Sep 29. (Epub ahead of print)
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu, 705-717, Korea.

Lisa A. Fortier DVM, PhD, Catherine H. Hackett DVM, PhD, Brian J. Cole MD, MBA
The Effects of Platelet-Rich Plasma on Cartilage: Basic Science and Clinical Application
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is emerging as a biological therapy for the treatment of cartilage injuries and for intra-articular application to address knee pain. Basic science studies indicate that PRP stimulates cell proliferation and the production of cartilage matrix by chondrocytes and …
Operative Techniques in Sports Medicine, Volume 19, Issue 3, September 2011, Pages 154-159.

Gerben M. van Buul, MD, Wendy L.M. Koevoet, BSc, Nicole Kops, BSc, P. Koen Bos, MD, PhD, Jan A.N. Verhaar, MD, PhD, Harrie Weinans, PhD, Monique R. Bernsen, PhD, Gerjo J.V.M. van Osch, PhD
Platelet-Rich Plasma Releasate Inhibits Inflammatory Processes in Osteoarthritic Chondrocytes
The American Journal of Sports Medicine; August 19, 2011
[Full article]

Sampson, S.
Injection of Platelet-Rich Plasma in Patients with Primary and Secondary Knee Osteoarthritis: A Pilot Study
American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. Nov 20, 2010 online, Dec 2010 print. 961-969.

Ana Wang-Saegusa, Ramón Cugat, Oscar Ares, Roberto Seijas, Xavier Cuscó and Montserrat Garcia-Balletbó.
Infiltration of plasma rich in growth factors for osteoarthritis of the knee short-term effects on function and quality of life
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Volume 131, Number 3, 311-317, DOI: 10.1007/s00402-010-1167-3.

Hunziker EB, Driesang IM, Morris EA. Clinical orthopaedics and related research.
Chondrogenesis in cartilage repair is induced by members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily
Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2001;391(Suppl):S171–81.

Nakagawa K, Sasho T, Arai M, Kitahara S, Ogino S, Wada Y, et al.
Effects of autologous platelet-rich plasma on the metabolism of human articular chondrocytes
Chiba and Ichihara, Japan. Electronic poster presentation P181. International Cartilage Repair Society Meeting, Warsaw Poland, October 2007.

Kon E, Filardo G, Presti ML, Delcogliano M, Iacono F, Montaperto C, et al.
Utilization of platelet-derived growth factors for the treatment of cartilage degenerative pathology
Bologna, Italy. Electronic poster presentation 29.3. International Cartilage Repair Society Meeting, Warsaw Poland, October 2007.

Anitua E, Sanchez M, Nurden AT, Zalduendo MM, De La Fuente M, Azofra J, et al.
Platelet-released growth factors enhance the secretion of hyaluronic acid and induce hepatocyte growth factor production by synovial fibroblasts from arthritic patients
Rheumatology. 2007;46(12):1769–72.

Kon E, Buda R, Mandelbaum B, Filardo G, Timoncini A, Delcogliano M, Fornasari P, Giannini S, Marcacci M.
PRP intra-articular injection versus viscosupplementation as treatments for early osteoarthritis
Podium Presentation, # 685. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, New Orleans LA. March 12, 2010.
[Full article]

Wu W, Zhang J, Dong Q, Liu Y, Mao T, Chen F
Platelet-rich plasma – A promising cell carrier for micro-invasive articular cartilage repair. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t]
Med Hypotheses 2009 Apr; 72(4):455-7.

Sun, Y et al.
The regenerative effect of platelet-rich plasma on healing in large osteochondral defects
International Orthopaedics, 2010. 34:589-597.

Elizaveta Kon, Roberto Bnda, Ginseppe Filardo, Alessandro Di Martino, Antonio Timoncini, Annarita Cenacchi, Pier Maria Fornasari, Sandro Giannini, Maurilio Marcacci.
Platelet-rich plasma: intra-articular knee injections produced favorable results on degenerative cartilage lesions
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. Sept 2009: 0940-8.
[Full article]

Nathan Wei.
Tissue Engineering with Platelet-Rich Plasma and Stem Cells: New Frontier In Rheumatology
The Journal of Musculoskeletal Medicine. July 2009.
[Full article]

Sanchez M, Azofra J, Anitua E, Andia I, Padilla S, Santisteban J, Mujika I (2003).
Plasma rich in growth factors to treat an articular cartilage avulsion: a case report
Med Sci Sports Exerc 35:1648-1652.
[Full article]

Berghoff W, Pietrzak W, Rhodes R.
Platelet-rich plasma application during closure following total knee arthroplasty
Orthopedics. 2006;29(7):590–8.
[Full article]

Gardner MJ, Demetrakopoulos D, Klepchick P, Mooar P.
The efficacy of autologous platelet gel in pain control and blood loss in total knee arthroplasty: an analysis of the haemoglobin, narcotic requirement and range of motion
Int Orthop. 2006;31:309–13.

Everts P, Devilee R, Mahoney C, Eeftinck-Schattenenkerk M, Knape J, Van Zundert A.
Platelet gel and fibrin sealant reduce allogeneic blood transfusions in total knee arthroplasty
Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2006;50:593–9.

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Animal Studies

Geng Z, Wang C, Zhou H
Effect of platelet-rich plasma on tendon healing
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi. Mar 2011; 25(3):344-8.

Harris, N. Lindsay, MD; Purnell, Mark L., MD; Huffer, William E., MD; Larson, Andrew I.
The Effect of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) on Normal Soft Tissues in the Rabbit BSME
Phinney, Shawn, MA; Von Stade, Eleanor F., MD. Aspen Orthopaedics Associates and Aspen Sports Medicine Foundation (AMSF).
[Full article]

Wu W, Chen F, Liu Y, Ma Q, Mao T
Autologous injectable tissue-engineered cartilage by using platelet-rich plasma: experimental study in a rabbit model. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t]
J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2007 Oct; 65(10):1951-7.

Bir SC, Esaki J, Marui A, Yamahara K, Tsubota H, Ikeda T, Sakata R
Angiogenic properties of sustained release platelet-rich plasma: characterization in-vitro and in the ischemic hind limb of the mouse. [Comparative Study, In Vitro, Journal Article]
J Vasc Surg 2009 Oct; 50(4):870-879.e2.

Aspenberg P, Virchenko O. 2004.
Platelet concentrate injection improves Achilles tendon repair in rats
Acta Orthop Scand 75(1):93-9.
[Full article]

Taylor M, Norman T, Clovis N, Blaha D.
The response of rabbit patellar tendons after autologous blood injection
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002;34(1):70–3.

Carpenter, T, et al.
Treatment of muscle injuries by local administration of autologous conditioned serum: animal experiments using a muscle contusion model
Int J Sports Med, 2004. 25:1-6.
[Full article]

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Human Studies: Spine


Hu X, Wang C, Rui Y.
An experimental study on effect of autologous platelet-rich plasma on treatment of early intervertebral disc degeneration.
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2012 Aug;26(8):977-83. Chinese.
PMID: 23012935 [PubMed – in process]
[Related citations]

Schroeder, Josh; Grad, Sibylle; Verrier, Sophie; Peroglio, Marianna; Kaplan, Leon; Hasharoni, Amir; Barzilay, Yair; Liebergall, Meir; Richards, Geoff; Alini, Mauro
Proliferation of Annulus Fibrosus Cells in Platelet Rich Plasma ‐ A Natural 3D Scaffold: An in Vitro Study: Gp8
Spine: Affiliated Society Meeting Abstracts . Supplement 1:page #], October 2011.

Adam D. Weglein
Focused Review: Current Trends in Platelet-Rich Plasma Injection Treatments
Journal of Neurosurgical Review, Vol 1 (2011).
[Full article]

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PRP Physiology

Eppley BL, Woodell JE, Higgins J
Platelet quantification and growth factor analysis from platelet-rich plasma: implications for wound healing
Plast Reconstr Surg. 2004 Nov;114(6):1502-8.

Wang P, Qu Y, Man Y
Platelet-rich plasma as a scaffold for injectable soft-tissue augmentation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
Cytotherapy 2010 May 21.

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More PRP Therapy Publications

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